As you have seen, articles are made in steps. You have seen an example of this in 'Step 1: Some articles are world travellers'. Here is another example.

World trip of a pair of jeans

  1. The designers of Strauss and Co., a company that makes jeans, come up with a new model, intended for the European market. They send the design and working drawings to the Philippines.
  2. Cotton is harvested in Kazakhstan, India or Peru. It is transported to China. There, the raw cotton is spun into cotton yarn. The yarn is transported to the Philippines. There the cotton is dyed in indigo colours with a dye obtained from a plant originally from India or with a chemical dye.
  3. The yarn is then sent to Poland, where it is woven into rolls of cloth.
  4. The rolls of fabric go to the Philippines. Lining, labels, buttons, zips and everything else that goes into clothing also goes from France to the Philippines. There, the jeans are sewn together.
  5. The trousers are shipped to Greece where they are bleached with pumice stone.
  6. Finally, the jeans arrive in the Netherlands, ready for sale.

These successive stages of production and the accompanying companies, from the producer of the raw materials to the retailer, are called a supply chain.

7) Which part of the world's journey of the jeans is not part of a chain of operations?